## Maxwell’s Equations

See the geometrical beauty of Maxwell’s equations by *deriving* them from the action principle!

## What is Plasma?

Learn about the criteria by which we define plasma, the 4th state of matter.

## The Dielectric Permittivity

How do we deal with matter when solving Maxwell’s Equations? Why do the characteristics of light change in various media? Find out here!

## What Is Light?

Learn the history of light detection on Earth, and about what light is in the first place.

## The Boltzmann Equation

Ever wonder why clouds on earth resemble stellar nebulae that are lightyears across? Derive the equation that describes them both right here!

## Basic Waves in Plasma

Learn the basics about how electromagnetic waves travel through plasma.

## Photonics

“*What sort of material can afford us complete control over light propagation?*“

â€“ John D. Joannopoulos, Photonic Crystals (2008)

## Topologically Protected Edge States

Learn the secret behind creating signals that are only allowed to travel in one direction no matter how tortuous the path!

## Electromagnetic Simulations

Learn about how **100% free** E&M simulation software written by MIT, Stanford, and Oregon State University scientists works under the hood.

## Waves in Magnetized Plasma

How do electromagnetic waves interact with magnetized plasma? Find out here!

## Electromagnetic Band Diagrams via the FDTD Method

Learn how to use open-source EM simulation software to calculate the allowed propagation modes for photonic crystals!

## The Boltzmann (or Normal) Distribution

Learn how we can derive the Boltzmann distribution by maximizing entropy.